Sveriges flagga

Official name: Kingdom of Sweden.

Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy.

Head of State: King Carl XVI Gustaf (since 1973).

Head of Government: Stefan Löfven (since October 2014).

National Day: June 6th.

Cabinet of the Swedish Government

Post

Name

Took Office

Prime Minister

Stefan Löfven

January 19, 2019

Minister for Foreign Affairs

Margot Wallström

January 19, 2019

Minister for EU Affairs

Hans Dahlgren

January 19, 2019

Minister for Justice and Migration

Morgan Johansson

January 19, 2019

Minister for Home Affairs

Mikael Damberg

January 19, 2019

Minister for International Development Cooperation

Peter Eriksson

January 19, 2019

Minister for Foreign Trade and Nordic Cooperation

Ann Linde

January 19, 2019

Minister for Defence

Peter Hultqvist

January 19, 2019

Minister for Health and Social Affairs

Lena Hallengren

January 19, 2019

Minister for Social Security

Annika Strandhäll

January 19, 2019

Minister for Finance

Magdalena Andersson

January 19, 2019

Minister for Financial Markets and Housing

Per Bolund

January 19, 2019

Minister for Public Administration and Consumer Affairs

Ardalan Shekarabi

January 19, 2019


Minister for Education


Anna Ekström


January 19, 2019

Minister for Higher Education and Research

Matilda Ernkrans

January 19, 2019

Minister for the Environment and Climate

Isabella Lövin

January 19, 2019

Minister for Infrastructure

Anna Johansson

January 19, 2019

Minister for Enterprise

Ibrahim Baylan

January 19, 2019

Minister for Rural Affairs

Jennie Nilsson

January 19, 2019

Minister for Culture, Democracy and Sports

Amanda Lind

January 19, 2019

Minister for Employment

Ylva Johansson

January 19, 2019

Minister for Gender Equality and Responsibility for Anti-discrimination and Anti-segregation

Åsa Lindhagen

January 19, 2019

Minister for Infrastructure

Thomas Eneroth

January 19, 2019

Minister for Energy and Digital Development

Anders Ygerman

January 19, 2019

Population: 9, 988,701 million inhabitants. (2017)

Capital: Stockholm. 2,231,439 million inhabitants, including the suburbs.

Surface: 449.964 km2 (forests 54%, mountains 16%, cultivated land 8%, and rivers 9%)

Longest distance from North to South: 1574 km

Official language: Swedish (certain minorities speak Finnish and Suomi)

Religion: Around 87% of the population is a member of the state Lutheran Church. In practice, however, Sweden is a very secular country.

Currency: The Swedish krona.

Life expectancy: Men: 78.86 years. Women: 83.63 years

Birth rate: 11.70 births/1,000 pop. (as of 2012)

Population density: 22 pp/km2

Head of State: H.R.M. Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden. He heads a hereditary monarchy. The heiress to the throne is his first-born child, Princess Victoria.

Head of Government: Stefan Löfven. (Social Democrat Party.) His office as Prime Minister of Sweden began on October of 2014 and he governs with an alliance between the Social Democrats and the Green Party.

Leader of Parliament: Urban Ahlin (Social Democrat Party).

Minister for Foreign Affairs: Margot Wallström (Social Democrat Party). Took office on October 2014.

Mexican-Swedish Bilateral Relations

Bilateral relations between Sweden and Mexico historically date back to the opening of the Swedish Consulate in Veracruz in 1850, said former Swedish Primer Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt at the National Palace during his state visit to Mexico in September 2013. Since that time, relations have only deepened and intensified.

Mexico and Sweden formalized diplomatic relations on July 29, 1885. Factors such as the inclusion of Sweden in the European Union beginning in 1995 and the convergence of similar positions as a part of a multilateral agenda have contributed to increase cooperation and political dialogue between our nations. In addition, as a result of an active policy of openness, there has been an increase of economic interaction and a greater investment on behalf of Sweden in our country.

The strong relationship between Mexico and Sweden has also been reflected in various encounters at the highest levels of government. Swedish monarchs have carried out official visits to Mexico on two occasions. On January of 1982, King Carl XVI Gustaf and his wife Queen Silvia made their first official state visit to Mexico. This encounter allowed for a broaching of topics of mutual interest to both nations, such as the so-called North-South dialogue, disarmament, and other subjects pertaining to the bilateral relationship. Their Majesties’ second visit of State to Mexico took place on November, 2002.

Presidents Miguel de la Madrid, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, and Vicente Fox all made State visits to Sweden, the latter in June of 2003.

Former President Felipe Calderón met with the current Swedish Prime Minister, Fredrik Reinfeldt, on four occasions: in the 2012 G-8 Summit; at the Meeting of G-5 Leaders, which was hosted in L’Aquila, Italy, in June 2009; during the Summit on Nuclear Security in Washington, D.C., on April, 2010; and in Davos, on January 2011.

On February, 2010, the Foreign Affairs Minister of Sweden, Mr. Carl Bildt, visited Mexico, where he met with the then Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Patricia Espinosa, to strengthen  bilateral relations in all areas. Both Chancellors reviewed options to diversify commercial and investment relations; they emphasized common viewpoints held by both countries on various regional and multilateral issues.

On November, 1998, the Memorandum of Understanding between the Foreign Ministries Establishing a Consultation Mechanism on Matters of Mutual Interest was signed in Stockholm by both Ministers of Foreign Affairs. To date, there have been three encounters pertaining to this accord; the first was carried out in Sweden in June, 2002, the second in Stockholm  in September, 2005 and the third in Mexico City in April of 2010.

In this context, Mexico and Sweden have repeatedly revised and worked to strengthen the main subjects of their bilateral and multilateral agenda. Topics related to human rights issues, democracy, disarmament, the fight against terrorism and the environment have consistently enjoyed Swedish-Mexican collaboration; this has been further cemented by joint proposals in the United Nations.

Mexico and Sweden’s labors as promoters of their commonly-held causes within foreign policy forums has been unwavering and has yielded positive results, which have usually not gone unnoticed by the international community. Examples of this include their support of global nuclear disarmament and their promotion of international cooperation for greater global development.

Mexico and Sweden coincided in the creation of the Council of Human Rights, which substituted the Human Rights Commission in the United Nations. There is also common ground between the two nations with the creation and membership of the "Group of Friends for the Reform of the UN," (a Mexican initiative) and the "Four Nations Initiative to Encourage Reforms in the United Nations," (a Swedish initiative). Joint Swedish-Mexican efforts in environmental subjects, particularly in the topic of climate change, have given way to concrete initiatives and collaborative actions in the midst of several international forums.

On September 27, 2013, former Swedish Prime Minister Fredrick Reinfeldt visited Mexico accompanied by former Commerce Minister Ewa Björling and a business delegation of 70 people. President Enrique Peña Nieto and former Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt signed a Joint Declaration expressing interest in endorsing the friendship, economic, cultural and cooperation ties between the two countries. In addition, this accord established a shared commitment to achieving tangible results in areas such as culture, education, science, innovation, tourism and commerce, among others. Likewise, the presidents ratified the signing of a health agreement between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs of Sweden. In addition, a memorandum of understanding was signed to facilitate export credits between the National Bank of Foreign Trade of Mexico (Bancomext) and the Swedish Export Credit Guarantee Commission. This memorandum of understanding is a statement of intent to cooperate and further strengthen support for Mexican and Swedish exporting companies. It also notes the intention of both countries to revive technical and scientific cooperation, taking into account the memorandum of understanding signed by CONACYT and the Swedish government in 2011. The Minister of Commerce, Ewa Björling, also met with the Secretary of Economy, Ildefonso Guajardo Villarreal, who also received the delegation. Also, meetings were held with other representatives of the Mexican Government.

On February 21, 2015, former Mexican Foreign Minister Jose Antonio Meade concluded a three-day Nordic tour in Sweden, with which Mexico thus strengthened its political dialogue. During his stop in Stockholm, his last stop on the trip—which also took him through Denmark and Finland--Meade met with Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallström.

 

MAIN TREATIES, CONVENTIONS, AND AGREEMENTS

 - Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation with Norway and Sweden. Signed on July 29, 1985.

- Visa Exemption Agreement in Ordinary Passports. April 21, 1954. Effective on May 1st, 1954.

- Convention for the Suppression of Diplomatic and Official Visas of Sweden. Applicable since December, 1990.

- Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion Regarding Income Tax. Signed in Washington, D.C., on September 21st, 1992; became effective on January 1st, 1993.

- Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation Agreement between Mexico and the European Community and its Member States. Effective since October 2000.

- Memorandum of Understanding between the Foreign Ministries Establishing a Consultation Mechanism on Matters of Mutual Interest. Signed in Stockholm on November 26, 1998. The first meeting of the Mechanism took place in Stockholm in June 2002; the Mexican Delegation was led by Mexico’s Ambassador Miguel Marín Bosch, Assistant Secretary for Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe and the United Nations, and by Hans Dahlgren, Secretary of State of the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Second Meeting of the Political Consultation Mechanism between Mexico and Sweden took place in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden (29.IX.2005), and was chaired by Ambassador Lourdes Aranda, Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico and Hans Dalhgren , Secretary of State of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden. The Third Meeting of the Political Consultative Mechanism between Mexico and Sweden took place in Mexico City in April 2010 and was chaired by Assistant Secretary Lourdes Aranda and Deputy Minister Gunnar Wieslander in the offices of the Undersecretariat of Foreign Affairs. Subsequently, the Fourth Meeting of the Consultative Mechanism was held in Sweden (11.X.2012), headed by Undersecretary Amb. Juan Manuel Gómez Robledo; among the agreements reached here were the establishment of the need for collaboration between the Swedish Agency for International Cooperation for Development (SIDA) and AMEXCID; a proposal to sign a Letter of Intent on collaboration in the field of Health, and the Intention to finalize a Memorandum of Understanding on sustainable and innovative mining cooperation. The Fifth Meeting of the Mechanism for Bilateral Policy Consultations on Matters of Mutual Interest between Mexico and Sweden was held in Stockholm (03.VI.2016), was held at the General Director level, with the participation of Mexico’s General Director for Europe, Francisco del Rio, and the Swedish General Directors of Political Affairs, Amb. Anna-Karin Eneström and General Director for the Americas, Amb. Teppo Tauriainen; on the basis of the agreed-upon themes, the following topics were initiated in coordination with the relevant areas: the possible state visit of President Enrique Peña Nieto to Sweden in 2017; the sixth CCM in Mexico at the Sub-secretariat level, and also, an agreement to deepen contacts with the Mexican Congress and the support of Sweden for the revision and expansion of the TLCUEM, since it was considered that the economic-trade relationship with Mexico must be invigorated; the possible visits of the Mexican Secretary of Energy and the Head of the Secretariat of Mobility of Mexico City to Sweden; a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Sustainable Mining; an Agreement on issues of forest sustainability, green technologies and urban development; the application of Amb. Manuel Rodríguez Arriaga to be part of the IDEA Advisory Council and the Swedish proposal for the Spanish-language training program "Women and the Peace Process."

- Memorandum of Understanding between the Swedish Foundation for the Development of Ethanol and the Coalition of Pro-ethanol Governors of Mexico, within the framework of the First International Biofuels Congress (01.II.1999 and 02.II.1999), when the Coalition of Pro-Ethanol Governors of Mexico was created, presided by Mr. Alberto Cárdenas Jiménez, former Governor of Jalisco, act with which he became a pioneer and representative of the country before the International Alliance of Ethanol Governors to which the following countries belong: the United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Sweden, Thailand, and soon, India and China.

- Agreement on Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation between Mexico and the European Community and its Member States. Effective since October 2000.

- Agreement Between the Government of the United Mexican States and the Government of Sweden for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments (BIT). Signed in Stockholm on October 3, 2000; became effective on July 1st, 2001.

- Agreement of Scientific and Technical Cooperation between Mexico and Sweden, signed on 24.V. 1980; based on that document, on 23.XI.2011, CONACYT and the Swedish Government signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation. In September 2013, Mexico's President Enrique Peña Nieto and former Prime Minister of Sweden Fredrik Reinfeltd relaunched this SAgreement. The areas of cooperation agreed on in the Memorandum were: Agricultural Sciences, Biology and Chemistry, Medicine and Health, Environment, Earth Sciences, Physics and Mathematics, Social Sciences and the Humanities. On this same State visit in 2013, the Swedish Minister of Commerce, Ewa Börjling, signed a Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation with CONACYT and STINT (Swedish Foundation for International Academic Cooperation in Research and Higher Education), which was in force until November 2014. On 27 .III.2014, at the meeting held by the Head of this Representation, Amb. Agustín Gasca Pliego and Mr. Ciro Vasquez, an official of the Swedish Government Agency for Research and Innovation (VINNOVA), considered the desirability of exploring possible collaboration schemes within the framework of this Memorandum and identifying key sectors in our country on which the specific projects could be developed. On 17.I.2017, during the meeting between the Chargée d'Affaires, a.i. Audrey Rivera Gomez and the Secretary of State for Housing and Digital Development (Ministry of Industry), Mr. Alf Karlsson, they addressed the issue of sustainable urban development and the principles and instruments of the Swedish broadband strategy “Fully Connected Sweden 2025.” The Swedish government's interest in holding a meeting with its Mexican counterpart of the Ministry of Communications and Transport (SCT) was highlighted in order to continue the issues already addressed in November 2016, and to deepen a possible closer collaboration scheme in this and other issues, such as innovation and digitization. On 21.II.2017, consultations were held between the technical teams of the SCT and the Swedish counterpart to agree on a possible meeting and define the thematic agenda.

- President Peña Nieto and former Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt signed a Joint Declaration (27.09.2013), which highlighted the interest in endorsing the friendly, economic, cultural and cooperation ties between the two countries, in addition to establishing a commitment to achieving tangible results in areas such as culture, education, science, innovation, tourism and commerce, among others. Likewise, the leaders testified the signing of a Letter of Intent on collaboration in Health Matters between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs of Sweden. Based on this collaborative instrument, the Government of Sweden and the Mexican Ministry of Mobility (SEMOVI) of Mexico City signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the management of information and the creation of a database on road safety, as well as to provide elements of improvement in education in road safety and mobility culture (16.III.2016), which was developed based on Vision Zero, a multinational road safety project that seeks to achieve a transit system with no deaths or serious injuries. This model began in Sweden and was approved by its Swedish parliament in October 1997. In this context, Héctor Serrano Cortés, Head of SEMOVI, in response to the invitation made by the then Secretary of State for the Ministry of Infrastructure Sweden, Erik Bromander, plans to make a working visit to Stockholm and meet with Mattias Landgren, current Secretary of this Ministry, during the third week of April 2017 and address issues of electro-mobility, smart mobility and road safety, among others.

- President Peña Nieto and former Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt in the signed a Joint Declaration, including a Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in Export Credits between the National Bank for Foreign Trade of Mexico (Bancomext) and the Swedish Commission for the Guarantee of Export Credit (27.09.2013). During that state visit, the Swedish president was accompanied by the then Minister of Commerce, Ewa Björling, and a broad business delegation made up of representatives from the Swedish  health, energy, transport and technological innovation sectors. The Embassy monitors the activities carried out by the parties in this framework, which agreed to promote financial transactions and projects involving exports from their countries, as well as to exchange experiences and offer training programs in this area. During 2016 and 2017 (January and February), no request was registered in this area that would result in support of this Representation and ProMexico in Stockholm.

- Memorandum of Understanding on Mining Cooperation between Mexico and Sweden; during August 2011, Sweden expressed interest in a Memorandum of Understanding on Mining Cooperation, for which it submitted a general proposal. In April 2012, the Mexican Ministry of Economy sent a counterproposal to the Swedish government, so that it could examine the issue and then issue its comments. However, the parties identified technical problems related to the legal powers for the signature of this type of documents, so that the negotiation was paralyzed. In October 2013, the Mexican Ministry of Economy (SE) reactivated the issue and transmitted to its Swedish counterpart (Ministry of Entrepreneurship, Energy and Communications) a new project, in order to move forward in negotiation. The Swedish counterpart delivered the document with its comments to the SE (15.X.2016), currently under review by this unit (17.II.2017).

MEXICAN AMBASSADORS IN SWEDEN

  1. Francisco Mora (1864-67)
  2. Rafael Zubarán Capmany (1916-18)
  3. Fernando Lera (1918-19)
  4. Rodolfo Arturo Nervo (1919-20)*
  5. José María de la Garza (1919-20)*
  6. Balbino Dávalos (1921-22)
  7. Julio Madero (1922-23)
  8. Rafael Nieto (1923-25)
  9. Vito Alesio Robles (1925-27)
  10. Leopoldo Ortiz (1928-29)
  11. Romero, Ortega (1929-33)
  12. Alfonso de Rosenzweig Díaz (1933-35)
  13. Carlos Darío Ojeda (1935-36)
  14. José Pérez Gil y Ortiz (1936-37)
  15. Alfredo Breceda (1937-40)
  16. Luciano Joublanc Riva (1941-45)
  17. Francisco J. Aquilar (1945-47)
  18. Salvador R. Guzmán (1948-50)
  19. Gilberto Bosques (1950-53)
  20. Amalia de Castillo Ledón (1954-58)
  21. Víctor Alfonso Maldonado (1958-60)
  22. Agustín Leñero (1961-62)
  23. Carlos Gutiérrez Macías (1963-69)
  24. Daniel Escalante (1969-71)
  25. Guillermo Calderón Martínez (1971-74)
  26. Francisco Castillo-Nájera Calvillo (1974-77)
  27. Alfonso Castro-Valle (1977-82)
  28. Juan José Bremer 1982 (may-dic)
  29. Andrés Rozental (1983-88)
  30. Agustín García López Santaolalla (1988-91)
  31. Jorge Pinto Mazal (1991-94)
  32. Lorenzo Vignal (1994-98)
  33. Javier Barros Valero (1998-2001)
  34. Jorge Castro-Valle Kuehne (2001-2003)
  35. Fernando Estrada Sámano (2004- 2005)
  36. Norma Bertha Pensado Moreno (2006-2011)
  37. Jorge Lomónaco (June 2012-December 2013)
  38. Agustín Gasca Pliego (June 2014- present)

*The incidence of two representatives in the same year may be explained by internal divisions which characterised the years following the Revolution, in the periods between the presidencies of Venustiano Carranza and Álvaro Obregón. These conflicts which reached their apex with the uprising of Agua Prieta, in which President Carranza’s government was denounced, and which culminated in his murder in May of 1920.

Ambassador Agustín Gasca Pliego. Presented his credentials on June 10th, 2014.

Ambassador Annika Thunberg. Presented her credentials on October 24, 2016.

The Government of Mexico, through the General Directorate of Educational and Cultural Cooperation (Dirección General de Cooperación Educativa y Cultura, DOCEC), a part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (S.R.E.), annually offers scholarships to Swedish, Lithuanian and Latvian nationals with the aim of having them study in our country.

The various scholarship programs on offer, in alliance with 157 countries, have had the goal of bolstering cooperation, as well as that of making Mexico and its culture better known throughout the world.

For more information, please visit this link.

In spite of there being no official bilateral agreement between Sweden and Mexico in the academic field, universities and other academic institutions in both countries regularly carry out exchanges.

Cooperation Conventions between the Region of Västra Götaland (RVG) and the states of Querétaro and Michoacán have allowed for the profundization of cultural interaction, as well as for the exchange of scientific-technological experiences in issues pertaining to the environment, organic waste management and energy conservation.

Mexicans who wish to study in Sweden are advised to take into account that upper-level studies are no longer free of charge to foreigners. It is also notoriously difficult to find inexpensive living arrangements. Because of this, one of the requisites that Swedish immigration authorities have instituted in order to grant migratory approval to students is that they must present proof of economic solvency. Without this, it can be difficult to obtain a study and residence permit.

For studies longer than 3 months’ duration it is necessary to obtain a residence permit. Once the studies have been finalised, the permit expires; the student cannot then remain in Sweden. For these reasons, it is suggested as a first step to establish contact with the Swedish Embassy in Mexico in order to find out about all the requirements, both academic and migratory--as well as to become acquainted with the range of academic options available throughout the Swedish universities.

All of the relevant information, in addition to scholarships which are granted each year, may be found in the following page: www.studyinsweden.se

A few Swedish institutions grant scholarships to Mexican nationals, such as the "Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education" (STINT), which supports post-graduate studies. Eligible candidates must apply to this scholarship through either an affiliated Swedish university or from the relevant university of origin, in case of there being an existing agreement between institutions. Applications may not be sent directly to STINT. In order to have access to the most up-to-date information, it is important to consult the Swedish Embassy of the country of residence first.

CONCEPT

QUANTITY

REFERENCE

YEAR

Gross Domestic Product

3 541 813

(SEK millions at current prices)

2012

Gross Domestic Product per capita

382.6

(1,000 SEK)

2012

Gross Domestic Product per capita

374.2

(1,000 SEK)

2012

Gross Domestic Product

910 801

(SEK millions at current prices. Reference year 2012)

2013/2º Trimester

Gross Domestic Product

927 640

(SEK millions, at constant prices)

2013/2º Trimester

Exchange Rate, Krona against US Dollar (average) **/

6.5155

Min 6.294 / Max 6.836

 

Exchange rate, Krona against EUR (average)**/

6.8615

Min 6.5585 / Max 7.285

 

Unemployment

9.1 %

 

June 2013

Inflation */

-0.1%

 

June 2013

*/compared with June 2012. Source: Statistics Sweden http://www.scb.se

**/ Source: Sveriges Riksbank / www.riksbank.se