The word Mexico comes from the Nahuatl language, which was spoken by the Mexicas, or also known as Aztecs. The etymology of the word ‘Mexico’ has been widely discussed as there is no definitive proof about its sole origin. The theory that is mostly accepted points out that it is formed from three Nahuatl words: ‘metztli’ meaning ‘moon’; ‘xictli’ translate as ‘belly button’ or ‘centre’; and the affix ‘-co’ indicating ‘place’.

Therefore, the full translation and meaning of the word ‘Mexico’ would be ‘in the moon’s belly button’, or well ‘in the centre of the lake of the moon’. The reason for such name would be that the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded on an islet on the current lake of Texcoco, previously known as the Moon Lake.

The official legal name of the country is ‘United States of Mexico’. A federal republic organised in three powers: Executive Power, Legislative Power and Judicial Power. It is made up of 32 federal entities, including Mexico City, which constitutes the capital of the country and the three union powers reside.

Mexico is geographically located in the extreme south of North America where it is an integral part of one of the most important economic blocks in the world on the American continent, limited to the north by the United States, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.

Mexico has a continental area of 1'960,189 square kilometers, an exclusive economic zone of 3'149,190 and an extended continental shelf in the western polygon of the Gulf of Mexico of 10,570 square kilometers, giving a total of 5,120,679 square kilometers.

The president of Mexico is the head of state and government he is elected by popular vote for a period of 6 years (six-year term). The legislative branch  is bicameral: with a chamber of senators that has 128 seats and a chamber of deputies with 500 legislators. The judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice made up of 11 ministers.

The most recent population and housing census was carried out by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) from March 2 to 27, 2020 (Census 2020), which announced that the total population of Mexico amounts to 126,014,024; that the population density is 64 inhabitants per square kilometer, among many other important indicators, such as: birth, fertility, mortality, marriage, migration, indigenous language and religion, which can be reviewed online.

In Mexico there is freedom of belief and worship, which is enshrined in Article 24 of the Constitution. According to the 2020 Population and Housing Census in matters of religion, the comparisons between 2010 and 2020 were: a lower percentage of faithful of the Catholic Church (from 82.7 to 77.7%), a higher percentage of faithful of Protestant and Evangelical churches (of 7.5 to 11.2%) and, above all, a higher percentage of people without religion (from 4.7 to 8.1%, with an additional 2.5 of people without religious affiliation).

Formal education in Mexico is based on the Mexican Educational System, whose levels are: initial education, basic education, upper secondary education and higher education. The management of education is the responsibility of the State itself, which falls to the Ministry of Public Education (SEP) whose essential purpose is to create conditions that allow ensuring access of all Mexican women and men to quality education, at the level and modality that require it and, in the place, where they demand it. (

The most widely spoken language is Spanish and 68 indigenous languages are officially recognized, so the country is among the top ten with the most native languages and ranks second with this characteristic in Latin America, according to the National Institute of Indigenous Languages (INALI).

The Bank of Mexico (Banxico) or central bank, is the institution of the country that is in charge of supplying the national currency reserves for the functioning of the economy. It performs autonomously as established by the Constitution and its priority is to ensure the stability of the currency.

Mexican peso is the official currency of Mexico; It is the eighth most traded currency in the world and third in the American continent (equivalent to the Australian dollar here.)

The net internal debt of the federal public sector was 7 trillion 202 billion pesos, while the net external debt of the federal public sector stood at 207.8 billion dollars (equivalent to 3 trillion 887.5 billion pesos) according to data from the February 2020.

The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) offers a "Timely Quarterly GDP Estimate" on the evolution of the Mexican economy 30 days after the end of the reference quarter, based on: the statistical information available at that time, the statistical techniques and econometric models that are best used conform to that information.

The Ministry of Economy is responsible for formulating and conducting the country's industry, foreign and domestic trade, supply and price policies. Its actions are aimed at promoting the generation of quality jobs and economic growth, through the promotion and implementation of public policies that trigger competitiveness and productive investments.

The Undersecretariat of Foreign Trade is the Federal Government body empowered to carry out the negotiation, administration and defense of International Trade and Investment Treaties and Agreements. Its mission is to contribute to the development, productivity and competitiveness of the Mexican economy, through the design and execution of international trade policy, as well as the conduct of international trade relations and negotiations in which Mexico participates.

The General Directorate of Foreign Investment (DGIE) of the Ministry of Economy, is in charge of managing and operating the National Registry of Foreign Investments (RNIE); disseminate information and studies on the investment climate in the country and implement public policy guidelines on FDI. Preliminary figures are normally published by the Ministry of Economy.

The Ministry of Tourism (SECTUR) has the mission of leading the national tourism development, through planning activities, promoting the development of the offer, supporting the operation of tourist services and promotion, articulating the actions of different instances and levels of government. Its purpose is to make Mexico a leading country in tourist activity, a key part of Mexico's economic development. Likewise, it is proposed to diversify tourism products and develop new markets; encourage tourism companies to be competitive nationally and internationally and develop tourism while respecting natural, cultural and social environments.

The National Fund for Tourism Development (FONATUR) is the strategic instrument for the development of tourism investment in Mexico, has played a leading role in the country's tourism development and has become a key axis for promoting tourism investment sustainable. Mexico has world-class destinations such as Cancun, Ixtapa, Los Cabos, Loreto, Huatulco and Riviera Nayarit

The Tourism Diplomacy Council was created in 2019 with the purpose of promoting Mexican tourism abroad, through the planning, design and implementation of strategies between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Tourism (SECTUR). The Council is made up of the 80 embassies and 67 consulates of Mexico abroad, whose task is to promote the Mexico brand in the world.

Mexico has 35 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The magazine México Desconocido mentions and describes them:

The Magic Towns Program contributes to revalue a group of populations in the country that have always been in the collective imagination of the nation as a whole and that represent fresh and different alternatives for national and foreign visitors and constitute localities with symbolic attributes, legends, history, transcendent facts of everyday life.

The National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) was created in 1970, it is a decentralized public body of the State, not sectorized, with legal personality and its own patrimony, which aims to be the advisory and specialized entity to articulate the government's public policies federal government and promote the development of scientific and technological research and innovation.

The Ministry of Culture is the institution in charge of promoting and disseminating the artistic and cultural expressions of Mexico, as well as the projection of the country's presence abroad. Its faculties include, carrying out plans, programs and projects related to the dissemination, expression and appreciation of fine arts, culture and popular arts, administering the archaeological, historical and artistic monuments that make up the cultural heritage of the Nation.

The National Institute of Fine Arts (INBA) since its foundation in 1946 stimulates, preserves, promotes and disseminates Mexican art and culture, making it the home of Mexican creators and a space for cultural dialogue and encounter.

The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) promotes research, preserves and disseminates the archaeological, anthropological, historical and paleontological heritage of the nation in order to strengthen the identity and memory of society. It has governing and regulatory powers in the protection and conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and is at the forefront thanks to its level of excellence in research and in the training of professionals in the field of its competence.

In 2019, the Cultural Diplomacy Council was established, which is made up of notable Mexican men and women who represent the highlights of Mexican cultural identity, in order to promote the culture and art of Mexico in the world. It is a collaboration mechanism that uses a digital platform that serves as an instrument for dialogue and generation of projects, with the participation of the cultural aggregates of Mexico and the network of Mexicans abroad, state governments and specialists who from different spaces propose and join forces to consolidate the presence of our country in the world.


"Human Development Index" (HDI) The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) calculates this taking into account three basic dimensions of development: health, education and income that can be measured through four indicators: hope of life at birth; years of schooling; average grade of schooling; per capita gross national income and life expectancy. The Human Development Index (HDI) was created to emphasize that expanding people's opportunities should be the most important criterion for assessing development results.

"Competitiveness Index" measures how a country uses its resources and capacity to provide its inhabitants with a high level of prosperity. In 2020, the country ranked 53rd due to weakening economic performance and recently due to the pandemic. of COVID-19. The COVID-19 impact has been very important, which is why it is recommended to access the site of the Government of Mexico here.

"Economic Observatory of Complexity", OEC (for its acronym in English), is a site supported by the MIT group "Media Lab Macro Connections" which provides a compendium of information on the commercial and productive aspects of countries around the world. The site allows a concentrated visualization of data, which is presented in different colors, percentages, symbols and sectors, which allows greater ease in data analysis.